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"In a society, freedom has nothing to say about what an individual does with his freedom; it is not an all-embracing ethic. Indeed, a major aim of the liberal is to leave the ethical problem for the individual to wrestle with." Milton Friedman
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1. Political orientation

The political orientation of our respondents who completed both groups of puzzles:

 

Libertarian (Classical liberal)
650 persons (35%)
Left (Progressive, Social democrat)
529 persons (29%)
Moderate (Centrist)
515 persons (28%)
Right (Conservative, Christian democrat)
98 persons (5%)
Statists (Authoritarian)
48 persons (3%)
All
2. The common view about freedom
[?] 1. Freedom from constraints 60%
Lack of obstacles and restrictions from other people. Freedom from constraints (negative freedom) in a society is larger the fewer restrictions average individuals encounter: the less they need to ask for permission from others for doing what they want and the fewer sanctions they face.
[?] 2. Freedom of choice 58%
The opposite of scarcity: more options or alternatives one has, higher one's freedom of choice is. From a social point of view, freedom of choice is the number of options available to an average individual.
[?] 3. Psychological autonomy 53%
Autonomy (or psychological freedom) is the opposite of being manipulated. A different way of putting it is by saying that an autonomous person is one who is willing and is allowed to act in a rational and authentic manner, rather than subjecting to what other people want or conforming to predefined social standards about what one must be. Understood from a social perspective, this refers to the autonomy of an average individual.
[?] 4. Tolerance 41%
The amount of tolerance is larger the lower the cost of publicly expressing and assuming one's group identity is. Group identity is defined by a set of signals, symbols, beliefs, needs and behaviors that identify people as members of a certain group. Group identity can refer to religious identity, ethnic identity, feminism, gay pride etc. Tolerance also refers to the protection of such groups (promoting diversity).
[?] 5. Freedom under law 40%
The opposite of being subjected to arbitrary demands or obligations. It is higher when everybody is subjected to the same rules. Laws are less arbitrary when people's duties and obligations follow from a predefined set of publicly known rules that have not been tailored for specific discriminatory purposes.
[?] 6. Political freedom 30%
Political freedom (or democracy) is the amount of control people have over determining the content of the rules that are enforced in their society. It's the opposite of authoritarian rule when a small number of people determine the rules that everybody else has to obey or of being ruled by a foreign power.
[?] 7. Welfare 25%
The number of benefits actually enjoyed by an average individual. At an individual level, one has higher welfare if one has more goods and enjoys more services, regardless of their origin (for instance they may even come from a benevolent dictator). It is the opposite of poverty.

This is how most people understand the concept of freedom. People don't find the seven varieties of freedom on the left to be equally intuitive: the hierarchy describes what they are most likely to think about in a given situation when the issue of freedom is at stake.

The three oppositions below, show whether people are likely to adopt an individualistic perspective or a communitarian one; whether they think in terms of lacking constraints (negative) or in terms of ability to do things or to have access to things (positive); and whether they associate freedom with having flexible rules that change depending on the desired outcomes or, on the contrary, with fixed and predictable procedures for doing things, the same for everybody.

[?] Individual vs. Community
Some forms of freedom refer to the individual (autonomy, choices, welfare or constraints), while others refer to the life of the community or to group benefits (democracy, law, tolerance). In cases when the two come into conflict with which do you usually side?
64% - 36%
[?] Negative vs. Positive
Positive freedom refers to various possible benefits, be they psychological, the number of available options or given services. Such benefits are often the consequence of having more negative freedom, but not always. So, when you can either have the positive forms of liberty or fewer constraints, what do you tend to consider as an enhancement of your freedom?
31% - 69%
[?] Procedures vs. Outcomes
A procedure is freedom-friendly if it is non-coercive, non-manipulative, non-arbitrary and democratic. But sometimes we may want to achieve some desirable outcomes, such as more choices, more welfare or more tolerance. When good procedures and desired outcomes come into conflict with which are you most likely to side?
60% - 40%
3. What freedoms most people prefer
[?] 1. Psychological autonomy 62%
Autonomy (or psychological freedom) is the opposite of being manipulated. A different way of putting it is by saying that an autonomous person is one who is willing and is allowed to act in a rational and authentic manner, rather than subjecting to what other people want or conforming to predefined social standards about what one must be. Understood from a social perspective, this refers to the autonomy of an average individual.
[?] 2. Freedom of choice 54%
The opposite of scarcity: more options or alternatives one has, higher one's freedom of choice is. From a social point of view, freedom of choice is the number of options available to an average individual.
[?] 3. Freedom under law 53%
The opposite of being subjected to arbitrary demands or obligations. It is higher when everybody is subjected to the same rules. Laws are less arbitrary when people's duties and obligations follow from a predefined set of publicly known rules that have not been tailored for specific discriminatory purposes.
[?] 4. Welfare 46%
The number of benefits actually enjoyed by an average individual. At an individual level, one has higher welfare if one has more goods and enjoys more services, regardless of their origin (for instance they may even come from a benevolent dictator). It is the opposite of poverty.
[?] 5. Tolerance 43%
The amount of tolerance is larger the lower the cost of publicly expressing and assuming one's group identity is. Group identity is defined by a set of signals, symbols, beliefs, needs and behaviors that identify people as members of a certain group. Group identity can refer to religious identity, ethnic identity, feminism, gay pride etc. Tolerance also refers to the protection of such groups (promoting diversity).
[?] 6. Freedom from constraints 37%
Lack of obstacles and restrictions from other people. Freedom from constraints (negative freedom) in a society is larger the fewer restrictions average individuals encounter: the less they need to ask for permission from others for doing what they want and the fewer sanctions they face.
[?] 7. Political freedom 31%
Political freedom (or democracy) is the amount of control people have over determining the content of the rules that are enforced in their society. It's the opposite of authoritarian rule when a small number of people determine the rules that everybody else has to obey or of being ruled by a foreign power.

This is what most people think best serves their interest. Do they ever prefer to have less freedom? To find out, compare their understanding of the concept (above), with what turned out to be their hierarchy of preferences (on the left).

The three oppositions below also reveal what people usually like: to be treated as unique individuals or as members of a community; to be left alone to just do their stuff or to be provided with options and benefits (even if this requires them to accept certain constraints); and whether they consider the existence of fixed and equal rules to be to their advantage.

[?] Individual vs. Community
Some forms of freedom refer to the individual (autonomy, choices, welfare or constraints), while others refer to the life of the community or to group benefits (democracy, law, tolerance). In cases when the two come into conflict with which do you usually side?
61% - 39%
[?] Negative vs. Positive
Positive freedom refers to various possible benefits, be they psychological, the number of available options or given services. Such benefits are often the consequence of having more negative freedom, but not always. So, when you can either have the positive forms of liberty or fewer constraints, what do you tend to consider as an enhancement of your freedom?
19% - 81%
[?] Procedures vs. Outcomes
A procedure is freedom-friendly if it is non-coercive, non-manipulative, non-arbitrary and democratic. But sometimes we may want to achieve some desirable outcomes, such as more choices, more welfare or more tolerance. When good procedures and desired outcomes come into conflict with which are you most likely to side?
56% - 44%
4. What most believe about the common good
[?] 1. Psychological autonomy 61%
Autonomy (or psychological freedom) is the opposite of being manipulated. A different way of putting it is by saying that an autonomous person is one who is willing and is allowed to act in a rational and authentic manner, rather than subjecting to what other people want or conforming to predefined social standards about what one must be. Understood from a social perspective, this refers to the autonomy of an average individual.
[?] 2. Freedom under law 57%
The opposite of being subjected to arbitrary demands or obligations. It is higher when everybody is subjected to the same rules. Laws are less arbitrary when people's duties and obligations follow from a predefined set of publicly known rules that have not been tailored for specific discriminatory purposes.
[?] 3. Freedom of choice 48%
The opposite of scarcity: more options or alternatives one has, higher one's freedom of choice is. From a social point of view, freedom of choice is the number of options available to an average individual.
[?] 4. Welfare 43%
The number of benefits actually enjoyed by an average individual. At an individual level, one has higher welfare if one has more goods and enjoys more services, regardless of their origin (for instance they may even come from a benevolent dictator). It is the opposite of poverty.
[?] 5. Tolerance 42%
The amount of tolerance is larger the lower the cost of publicly expressing and assuming one's group identity is. Group identity is defined by a set of signals, symbols, beliefs, needs and behaviors that identify people as members of a certain group. Group identity can refer to religious identity, ethnic identity, feminism, gay pride etc. Tolerance also refers to the protection of such groups (promoting diversity).
[?] 6. Political freedom 33%
Political freedom (or democracy) is the amount of control people have over determining the content of the rules that are enforced in their society. It's the opposite of authoritarian rule when a small number of people determine the rules that everybody else has to obey or of being ruled by a foreign power.
[?] 7. Freedom from constraints 30%
Lack of obstacles and restrictions from other people. Freedom from constraints (negative freedom) in a society is larger the fewer restrictions average individuals encounter: the less they need to ask for permission from others for doing what they want and the fewer sanctions they face.

This is what most people think best promotes the common good on the long term. Do they see the interests of the community ever coming into conflict with freedom? And to what extent are their personal interests in line with what's best for the community as a whole? To find out these things compare the results on the left with the previous hierarchies.

The three oppositions below also show what people think best serves the common good: whether individual independence serves the community as well; whether the common good is achieved by means of eliminating the constraints on people or, on the contrary, by focusing on the available benefits and options; and whether the flexibility of rules endangers or helps the community.

[?] Individual vs. Community
Some forms of freedom refer to the individual (autonomy, choices, welfare or constraints), while others refer to the life of the community or to group benefits (democracy, law, tolerance). In cases when the two come into conflict with which do you usually side?
58% - 42%
[?] Negative vs. Positive
Positive freedom refers to various possible benefits, be they psychological, the number of available options or given services. Such benefits are often the consequence of having more negative freedom, but not always. So, when you can either have the positive forms of liberty or fewer constraints, what do you tend to consider as an enhancement of your freedom?
17% - 83%
[?] Procedures vs. Outcomes
A procedure is freedom-friendly if it is non-coercive, non-manipulative, non-arbitrary and democratic. But sometimes we may want to achieve some desirable outcomes, such as more choices, more welfare or more tolerance. When good procedures and desired outcomes come into conflict with which are you most likely to side?
58% - 42%
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