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"One of the most striking things about the struggle for freedom is how often it has been lacking. Many people have submitted to the most obvious religious, governmental, and economic controls for centuries, striking for freedom only sporadically, if at all." B.F. Skinner
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1. Your political orientation
Your results

Your political orientation:

Moderate (Centrist)

 

Moderates prefer a "middle ground" regarding government control of the economy and personal behavior. Depending on the issue, they sometimes favor government intervention and sometimes support individual freedom of choice. Centrists pride themselves on keeping an open mind, tend to oppose "political extremes," and emphasize what they describe as "practical" solutions to problems.

 

Credits: Test adapted from 'The World's Smallest Political Quiz' by Advocates of Self-Government

2. What is freedom?
Your main understanding of freedom rests on these concepts.
[?] 1. Welfare 67%
The number of benefits actually enjoyed by an average individual. At an individual level, one has higher welfare if one has more goods and enjoys more services, regardless of their origin (for instance they may even come from a benevolent dictator). It is the opposite of poverty.
[?] 2. Freedom of choice 58%
The opposite of scarcity: more options or alternatives one has, higher one's freedom of choice is. From a social point of view, freedom of choice is the number of options available to an average individual.
[?] 3. Psychological autonomy 58%
Autonomy (or psychological freedom) is the opposite of being manipulated. A different way of putting it is by saying that an autonomous person is one who is willing and is allowed to act in a rational and authentic manner, rather than subjecting to what other people want or conforming to predefined social standards about what one must be. Understood from a social perspective, this refers to the autonomy of an average individual.
Less often, you understand freedom in these ways.
[?] 4. Tolerance 50%
The amount of tolerance is larger the lower the cost of publicly expressing and assuming one's group identity is. Group identity is defined by a set of signals, symbols, beliefs, needs and behaviors that identify people as members of a certain group. Group identity can refer to religious identity, ethnic identity, feminism, gay pride etc. Tolerance also refers to the protection of such groups (promoting diversity).
[?] 5. Freedom from constraints 42%
Lack of obstacles and restrictions from other people. Freedom from constraints (negative freedom) in a society is larger the fewer restrictions average individuals encounter: the less they need to ask for permission from others for doing what they want and the fewer sanctions they face.
[?] 6. Political freedom 33%
Political freedom (or democracy) is the amount of control people have over determining the content of the rules that are enforced in their society. It's the opposite of authoritarian rule when a small number of people determine the rules that everybody else has to obey or of being ruled by a foreign power.
[?] 7. Freedom under law 17%
The opposite of being subjected to arbitrary demands or obligations. It is higher when everybody is subjected to the same rules. Laws are less arbitrary when people's duties and obligations follow from a predefined set of publicly known rules that have not been tailored for specific discriminatory purposes.

This is how you understand the concept of freedom. The seven varieties of freedom on the left are not equally intuitive to you: the hierarchy describes what you are most likely to think about in a given situation when the issue of freedom is at stake.

The three oppositions below, show whether you are likely to adopt an individualistic perspective or a communitarian one; whether you think in terms of lacking constraints (negative) or in terms of ability to do things or having access to things (positive); and whether you associate freedom with having flexible rules that change depending on the outcomes you aim for or, on the contrary, with fixed and predictable procedures for doing things, the same for everybody.

[?] Individual vs. Community
Some forms of freedom refer to the individual (autonomy, choices, welfare or constraints), while others refer to the life of the community or to group benefits (democracy, law, tolerance). In cases when the two come into conflict with which do you usually side?
69% - 31%
[?] Negative vs. Positive
Positive freedom refers to various possible benefits, be they psychological, the number of available options or given services. Such benefits are often the consequence of having more negative freedom, but not always. So, when you can either have the positive forms of liberty or fewer constraints, what do you tend to consider as an enhancement of your freedom?
19% - 81%
[?] Procedures vs. Outcomes
A procedure is freedom-friendly if it is non-coercive, non-manipulative, non-arbitrary and democratic. But sometimes we may want to achieve some desirable outcomes, such as more choices, more welfare or more tolerance. When good procedures and desired outcomes come into conflict with which are you most likely to side?
46% - 54%
3. If the world was here just to please you
This is how you generally like things to be.
[?] 1. Psychological autonomy 83%
Autonomy (or psychological freedom) is the opposite of being manipulated. A different way of putting it is by saying that an autonomous person is one who is willing and is allowed to act in a rational and authentic manner, rather than subjecting to what other people want or conforming to predefined social standards about what one must be. Understood from a social perspective, this refers to the autonomy of an average individual.
[?] 2. Welfare 58%
The number of benefits actually enjoyed by an average individual. At an individual level, one has higher welfare if one has more goods and enjoys more services, regardless of their origin (for instance they may even come from a benevolent dictator). It is the opposite of poverty.
[?] 3. Tolerance 50%
The amount of tolerance is larger the lower the cost of publicly expressing and assuming one's group identity is. Group identity is defined by a set of signals, symbols, beliefs, needs and behaviors that identify people as members of a certain group. Group identity can refer to religious identity, ethnic identity, feminism, gay pride etc. Tolerance also refers to the protection of such groups (promoting diversity).
Less often, you prefer it when these freedoms are promoted.
[?] 4. Freedom from constraints 33%
Lack of obstacles and restrictions from other people. Freedom from constraints (negative freedom) in a society is larger the fewer restrictions average individuals encounter: the less they need to ask for permission from others for doing what they want and the fewer sanctions they face.
[?] 5. Freedom of choice 33%
The opposite of scarcity: more options or alternatives one has, higher one's freedom of choice is. From a social point of view, freedom of choice is the number of options available to an average individual.
[?] 6. Freedom under law 25%
The opposite of being subjected to arbitrary demands or obligations. It is higher when everybody is subjected to the same rules. Laws are less arbitrary when people's duties and obligations follow from a predefined set of publicly known rules that have not been tailored for specific discriminatory purposes.
[?] 7. Political freedom 25%
Political freedom (or democracy) is the amount of control people have over determining the content of the rules that are enforced in their society. It's the opposite of authoritarian rule when a small number of people determine the rules that everybody else has to obey or of being ruled by a foreign power.

This is what you think best serves your interest. Do you ever prefer to have less freedom? To find out, compare your understanding of the concept (above), with what turned out to be your hierarchy of preferences (on the left).

The three oppositions below also reveal what you usually like: to be treated as an unique individual or as a member of your community; to be left alone to just do your stuff or to be provided with options and benefits (even if this requires you to accept certain constraints); and whether you consider the existence of fixed and equal rules to be to your advantage.

[?] Individual vs. Community
Some forms of freedom refer to the individual (autonomy, choices, welfare or constraints), while others refer to the life of the community or to group benefits (democracy, law, tolerance). In cases when the two come into conflict with which do you usually side?
68% - 32%
[?] Negative vs. Positive
Positive freedom refers to various possible benefits, be they psychological, the number of available options or given services. Such benefits are often the consequence of having more negative freedom, but not always. So, when you can either have the positive forms of liberty or fewer constraints, what do you tend to consider as an enhancement of your freedom?
16% - 84%
[?] Procedures vs. Outcomes
A procedure is freedom-friendly if it is non-coercive, non-manipulative, non-arbitrary and democratic. But sometimes we may want to achieve some desirable outcomes, such as more choices, more welfare or more tolerance. When good procedures and desired outcomes come into conflict with which are you most likely to side?
54% - 46%
4. What you think best promotes the common good
This is what you think best helps society on the long term.
[?] 1. Psychological autonomy 75%
Autonomy (or psychological freedom) is the opposite of being manipulated. A different way of putting it is by saying that an autonomous person is one who is willing and is allowed to act in a rational and authentic manner, rather than subjecting to what other people want or conforming to predefined social standards about what one must be. Understood from a social perspective, this refers to the autonomy of an average individual.
[?] 2. Welfare 67%
The number of benefits actually enjoyed by an average individual. At an individual level, one has higher welfare if one has more goods and enjoys more services, regardless of their origin (for instance they may even come from a benevolent dictator). It is the opposite of poverty.
[?] 3. Tolerance 58%
The amount of tolerance is larger the lower the cost of publicly expressing and assuming one's group identity is. Group identity is defined by a set of signals, symbols, beliefs, needs and behaviors that identify people as members of a certain group. Group identity can refer to religious identity, ethnic identity, feminism, gay pride etc. Tolerance also refers to the protection of such groups (promoting diversity).
Less often, you think these freedoms generate social benefits.
[?] 4. Freedom of choice 33%
The opposite of scarcity: more options or alternatives one has, higher one's freedom of choice is. From a social point of view, freedom of choice is the number of options available to an average individual.
[?] 5. Political freedom 33%
Political freedom (or democracy) is the amount of control people have over determining the content of the rules that are enforced in their society. It's the opposite of authoritarian rule when a small number of people determine the rules that everybody else has to obey or of being ruled by a foreign power.
[?] 6. Freedom from constraints 25%
Lack of obstacles and restrictions from other people. Freedom from constraints (negative freedom) in a society is larger the fewer restrictions average individuals encounter: the less they need to ask for permission from others for doing what they want and the fewer sanctions they face.
[?] 7. Freedom under law 25%
The opposite of being subjected to arbitrary demands or obligations. It is higher when everybody is subjected to the same rules. Laws are less arbitrary when people's duties and obligations follow from a predefined set of publicly known rules that have not been tailored for specific discriminatory purposes.

This is what you think best promotes the common good on the long term. Do you see the interests of the community ever coming into conflict with freedom? And to what extent are your personal interests in line with what's best for the community as a whole? To find out these things compare the results on the left with the previous hierarchies.

The three oppositions also show what you think best serves the common good: whether individual independence serves the community as well; whether the common good is achieved by means of eliminating the constraints on people or, on the contrary, by focusing on the available benefits and options; and whether the flexibility of rules endangers the community.

[?] Individual vs. Community
Some forms of freedom refer to the individual (autonomy, choices, welfare or constraints), while others refer to the life of the community or to group benefits (democracy, law, tolerance). In cases when the two come into conflict with which do you usually side?
63% - 37%
[?] Negative vs. Positive
Positive freedom refers to various possible benefits, be they psychological, the number of available options or given services. Such benefits are often the consequence of having more negative freedom, but not always. So, when you can either have the positive forms of liberty or fewer constraints, what do you tend to consider as an enhancement of your freedom?
13% - 87%
[?] Procedures vs. Outcomes
A procedure is freedom-friendly if it is non-coercive, non-manipulative, non-arbitrary and democratic. But sometimes we may want to achieve some desirable outcomes, such as more choices, more welfare or more tolerance. When good procedures and desired outcomes come into conflict with which are you most likely to side?
50% - 50%

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